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       Why? How?

              While it was thought that passive components
               could be "integrated" into ICs, actually
               the opposite has been true.
              This is partially driven by the fact that real estate
               on an IC is much more expensive than
               real estate on a board.

             ECT is the art of embedding passive or active components within a substrate. This embedding can take place on a single
             layer of material, a combination of material layers or even can be achieved by placing a component within a cavity in a substrate.



A square area of resistive material = sheet resistivity of resistive material E.g., a 25/ϒ(Ohms/Square) sheet resistance

Resistor value = sheet resistivity x ratio of element length to width: R = Rs x L/W
                E.g., a 25/ϒ sheet resistivity - Length = 0.030"(30 mils); Width = 0.015"(15mils)
                Resistor value = 25/ϒ x (30mils/15mils) = 25 /ϒ x 2 squares = 50 ohms
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